John R. Spencer, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of biblical studies in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at John Carroll University. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago; his M.A. at the Pacific School of Religion, and his B.S. at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Spencer teaches in the areas of biblical studies, ancient Near Eastern history, archaeology, and interdisciplinary topics. He publishes on the topics of archaeology and the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible; and has worked on several archaeological excavations, and lived and traveled extensively in the Middle East.